Gland Design » Oring Groove Design Guide By Type

When designing an oring gland also commonly called the oring groove there are two application types to consider. First, in dynamic sealing applications there is relative motion between the parts of the gland. Therefore O-rings are subject to friction against the gland. This movement creates design challenges different from those of static applications. Radial squeeze on the O-ring is the most common dynamic application and can be further classified by reciprocating, rotary or oscillating motion.

In a static seal application their is little to no relative motion between the parts of the gland that come in contact with the O-ring. Static seals are commonly categorized according to the direction of the squeeze that is applied to the O-ring. The two basic directions of squeeze are axial and radial.

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Groove Design Factors
O-ring groove desing types
o-ring gland types

Gland Design Factors

• Materials Elastomers
• Chemical Compatibility
• Temperatures
• Stretch
• Squeeze
• Friction
• Types of Friction
• Pressures
• Surface Finishes
• Backup Rings

Gland Types

Dynamic Radial
Dynamic Reciprocating
Dynamic Rotary
Static Radial
Static Axial Internal Pressure
Static Axial External Pressure
Static Crush
Dovetail

Dynamic & Dovetail Gland Design

Gland Design Dynamic Radial
Gland Design, Dynamic Reciprocating
Gland Design Dynamic Rotary
Gland Design Dovetail

Static Seal Gland Design

Gland Design Static Radial
Gland Design Static Axial Internal Pressure
Static Axial Gland Exteneral Pressure
Static Crush Seal Design
O-Ring Groove Design

Dynamic Radial O-Ring Gland Design

In dynamic radial seal applications the O-ring is squeezed radially and subjected to reciprocating motion either intermittent or continuous. Thus O-rings used in these types of applications are subjected to friction between the parts of the gland. The table on our detailed information page lists recommended dimensions for dynamic radial o-ring glands by AS-568A O-ring dash numbers. O-rings and seals in dynamic radial applications should consider the following; temperatures, motion or vibration, squeeze, stretch, friction and surface finish. Columbia Engineered rubber provides the basic o-ring gland design for theses applications.

 

Dynamic Radial Example

 

 

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Gland Design Background

Static Radial O-Ring Gland Design

In a static radial seal application the O-ring is squeezed between the inner I.D. and the outer O.D. surfaces of the O-ring, with no relative motion between parts of the gland that come in contact with the O-ring. The table on our detailed information page lists recommended dimensions for static radial o-ring glands by AS-568A O-ring dash numbers. O-rings and seals in static radial applications should consider the following; temperatures, pressure, gas, or liquid contact, back-up ring usage and surface finish. Columbia Engineered rubber provides the basic o-ring static radial gland design for these applications.
Static Radial Gland Design
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Dynamic Reciprocating O-Ring Gland Design

In reciprocating sealing applications there is a back and forth or reciprocating motion along the shaft axis between the inner and outer parts of the gland. O-rings are often referred to as piston and rod seals when used in these types of applications. The table on your detailed information page recommends dimensions for dynamic reciprocating seal glands by AS-568A O-ring dash numbers. O-rings and seals in dynamic reciprocating applications should consider the following; temperatures, motion or vibration, squeeze, stretch, friction, stroke and lubrication. Columbia Engineered rubber provides the basic o-ring dynamic gland design for theses applications.
Dynamic Reciprocating O-Ring Gland Design
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Static Axial O-Ring Gland Design - Internal Pressure

In a static axial seal application the squeeze is on both the top and bottom of the O-rings cross section. Static axial seals are typically used in face seal applications. The table on our detailed information page recommends dimensions for static axial (internal pressure) seal glands by AS-568A O-ring dash numbers. O-rings serving as face seals in the static axial gland should consider the surface finish of the gland, temperatures and pressure. Columbia Engineered Rubber provides the basic o-ring axial gland design for these applications.
Static Axial Internal Pressure Gland Design
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O-Ring Seal Gland Design By Type

Dynamic Rotary O-Ring Gland Design

In a dynamic rotary seal application a turning shaft protrudes through the I.D. of an o-ring, the o-ring then becoming a seal. The table on our detailed information page recommends dimensions for dynamic rotary seal glands by AS-568A O-ring dash numbers. O-rings serving in a dynamic rotary gland should consider the surface finish, speed of shaft, and pressure. Columbia Engineered Rubber provides the basic o-ring dynamic rotary gland design for these applications.
Dynamic Rotary O-Ring Gland Design
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Dovetail O-Ring Gland Design

In a dovetail o-ring gland application the o-ring squeeze is primarily axial in direction, where a valve exerts force on the top and bottom of the o-rings surfaces. Typically used in static or slow moving applications the dovetail o-rings gland purpose is to properly hold the o-ring in place during machine operation. The table on our detailed information page lists recommended dimensions for dovetail seal glands by AS-568A o-ring dash numbers. Dovetail glands can prove to very beneficial when it is necessary to keep the o-ring from moving. It should be noted that dovetail glands require strict tolerances and are often expensive to machine.
O-Ring Dovetail Gland Design
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Static Axial O-Ring Gland Design - External Pressure

In a static axial seal application the squeeze is on both the top and bottom of the o-rings cross section. Static axial seals are typically used in face seal applications. The table on our detailed information page lists recommended dimensions for static axial (external pressure) seal glands by AS-568A o-ring dash numbers. O-rings serving as face seals in the static axial gland should consider the surface finish of the gland, temperatures and pressure. Columbia Engineered Rubber provides the basic o-ring axial gland design for these applications.
Static Axial O-Ring Gland
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Static Crush O-Ring Gland Design

In crush seal applications the o-ring is squeezed at an angle relative to its cross section. In these applications the o-ring is completely confined and pressure deformed within a 45º triangular gland, as depicted. The table on our detailed information page lists recommended dimensions for static crush seal glands by AS-568A o-ring dash numbers. Static crush seals benefit from the ease and relatively low cost of machining.
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How To Design an O-Ring By Gland Type
O-Ring Gland Design by Gland Type
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